• Current concepts in sports concussions

    Concussion accounts for ~90% of traumatic brain injuries (TBI), and ~1.68 to 3.8 million sports-related concussions occur annually in the US. Recently, a comprehensive Current Concepts in Sports Concussion supplement was published in Neurosurgery, highlighting mechanistic insights and the current best evidence for clinical management. The New Neurometabolic Cascade of Concussion describes acute metabolic changes after concussive brain injury, linking early symptoms and neurobiological processes with long-term impairment. Models of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: Translation of Physiological and Anatomic Injury reviews animal model studies, and evolving evidence that inflammatory cascades are significant in mild traumatic brain injury and repetitive sub-concussive injury. Advanced neuroimaging techniques for diagnosis and outcome prediction are discussed in Imaging Concussion: A Review. The most frequent sports-related fatalities, due to severe TBI with intracranial hemorrhages, are reviewed in Emergent Treatment of Athletes with Brain Injury. The Postconcussion Syndrome in Sports and Recreation: Clinical Features and Demography in 138 Athletes describes insights for postconcussive syndrome (PCS), much more prevalent in young athletes. 20% of PCS occurs after the first concussion, and 20% more after the second concussion. Most common PCS symptoms include headaches, memory disorders, concentration problems, balance and dizziness issues.



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